Download this stock image: Fig gall aphid, Elm-grass root aphid, Elm Sack Gall Aphid (Byrsocrypta ulmi, Tetraneura ulmi, Eriosoma ulmi), gall at a leaf of an elm, Germany - TR62DB from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. The picture below shows the offspring of the fundatrix maturing in the gall. The eggs hatch from mid-May and the development of fundatrices in the gall lasts for 23 days. These fairly large, stalked galls go by the common name of "fig galls". The three focal species (Geoica utricularia, Forda marginata and Tetraneura ulmi) had considerable clonal diversity at the population level. They are produced by a species of aphid, Tetraneura ulmi. We have found Tetraneura ulmi galls on English elm (Ulmus procera) quite widely in southern Britain, although never very commonly. Although I find these galls most often on red elm, I've also occasionally found them on American elms. Although some authors consider Tetraneura ulmi to be anholocyclic (see below), Depa & Wojciechowski concluded that Tetraneura ulmi in nests of Lasius flavus was predominantly holocyclic. These fairly large, stalked galls go by the common name of "fig galls". The aphid was most abundant on Ulmus minor, much less so on Ulmus glabra and absent from Ulmus laevis. Tetraneura ulmi is found in Europe, across Asia to eastern Siberia, and has been introduced to North America. It arises from the mid-rib of the upper surface of the leaf near its base (cf. In the great majority of cases, identifications have been confirmed by microscopic examination of preserved specimens. Whilst we make every effort to ensure that identifications are correct, we cannot absolutely warranty their accuracy. Populations without sexual forms occur commonly on secondary hosts. Photo by Bonnie Bell. Elm Sack Galls (= Pouch Galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid, Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. In 7.0% galls, immature fundatrices died in later stages of development due to the effect of a protective activity of plant tissues. They are produced by … The pictures below show elm-grass root aphids on the roots of grasses attended by Lasius ants. There has been even less work on the ecology of Tetraneura ulmi on its secondary host, the roots of grasses. Elm-grass aphid, Elm sack gall aphid Gall on Ulmus, Elm Primary hosts: Ulmus minor, glabra Secondary hosts: Oligophagous on Poaceae: Tetraneura ulmi Durlston, Dorset. (2012a) studied four root aphid species (Tetraneura ulmi, Geioca utricularia, Forda marginata and Forda formicaria) in saltmarsh in the Netherlands. Photo: The elm sack gall making aphid, Tetraneura ulmi Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Dolgormaa & Munkhtsetseg (2015) looked at the bionomics of Tetraneura ulmi in Mongolia. (2012b) investigated aphid diversity within and between ant nest mounds. June 13, 2018 Fertilized females only lay one egg each. Elm cockscomb gall aphid On this page: Identification & Distribution Biology & Ecology Are the galls aposematic? and Elytrigia maritima) inside ant mounds. Aphid Gall on an Elm Leaf, Tetraneura (Byrsocrypta) ulmi, Aphididae, Hemiptera. in June-July to colonize roots of grasses (Poaceae). While I have yet to find a rampant population on American elms that rival those commonly found on red elm, I've noticed over the past few years that these galls are becoming increasingly common on American elms planted in Ohio landscapes. Winged forms fly from elm galls in June and July to colonize roots of grasses where they are usually tended by moisture ants in the genus Lasius. Its alternate common name is the "Oriental grass root aphid" because this aphid also flies to grasses where it feeds on the roots. On a leaf. Elms are the primary host for the elm sack gall aphid. As with the elm sack gall aphid, the winged aphids that emerge from the leaf galls will fly to grasses where they produce offspring that suck juices from grass roots. The galls are stalked, approximately bean-shaped, smooth and shiny, and coloured reddish-green and/or yellow (see first picture below). Geoica utricularia which has no siphunculi). The ants appear to eat most of the early instar aphids, so that adult aphids are unlikely to face limited phloem resources and scramble competition with other aphids. Identification & Distribution. 73.3% of galls produced viable alates. There were no signs of ants biting the wings off the alate forms of aphids. The pictures below show early stages in the development of a gall. Nests of Myrmica rubra and Myrmica scabrinodis also contained a few Tetraneura ulmi. Identification & Distribution: In spring the Eriosoma lanuginosum fundatrix and her offspring develop in large, closed, bloated-leaf galls (see first picture below) on various elm (Ulmus) species. Elm balloon-gall aphid On this page: Identification & Distribution Other aphids on the same host. The offspring of the Tetraneura ulmi fundatrix develop within their gall to winged viviparous alates (see first picture below) which have a shiny black head, thorax, antennae and legs, and greyish black abdominal segments. Pest description and damage These aphids are grayish or greenish and prefer to feed on new plant growth. About This Subject; View Images Details; View Images; 0 Images Entomologist Dr. Art Evans and 88.9 WCVE producer Steve Clark note the perennial fall swarms of tiny aphids in the Richmond area. Aphid induces a 1 inch long by ¼ inch high wrinkled swelling on the leaf surface, irregular like a rooster’s comb ; Reddish at first but turning brown as the season progresses; Found on American and red elm; More information on Leaf galls Elm sack galls (= pouch galls) are produced by a non-native European aphid,Tetraneura ulmi, that was introduced into the U.S. in the 1890s. Gall mites infected on host plant, rain forest tree, Thailand. All images used are copyright. June 2019. There was as low mortality of offspring of the fundatrices caused by Anthocoris confusus, larvae of Syrphidae, caterpillars of Pyralidae, and birds. Within the nests of Lasius niger only 3 species of aphids were collected, mostly Anoecia corni, as well as Anoecia nemoralis and Tetraneura ulmi. Download this stock image: Fig gall aphid, Elm-grass root aphid, Elm Sack Gall Aphid (Byrsocrypta ulmi, Tetraneura ulmi, Eriosoma ulmi), gall at a leaf of an elm, Germany - TR62DC from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. However, grasses (Poaceae) serve as a secondary host with the aphids feeding on the roots. Tetraneura ulmi, the elm sack gall aphid, is a species of aphid in the family Aphididae. Fecundity of the fundatrices ranged from 4 to 22 larvae. Prices and download plans . The galls split open to release the aphids. Tetraneura ulmi has been recorded from 9 Ulmus species. Click on the filename to view the photos. Elm cockscomb galls are produced by another aphid, Colopha ulmicola that also alternates between elms and grasses. Fortunately, neither of these galls produce significant injury to the overall health of their elm tree host. Tamalia coweni ) about 75 species of aphid as feeding elm sack gall aphid elms,... 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I should treat it or not Co., Maryland ( 5/26/2013 ) the menu, Tetraneura ulmi ) considerable. I 've also occasionally found them on American elms all rights reserved in Montgomery Co., Maryland 5/26/2013... Elm balloon-gall aphid on this page: identification & Distribution other aphids on the primary host,,! Also occur on petioles and twigs of cottonwood or greenish and prefer to on... The ( summarized ) taxonomic information we have mostly made identifications from resolution! Cycle: Phylloxera overwinter in the family Aphididae root aphid ) on the leaves and Europe grateful any. Galls per leaf the ecology of Tetraneura ulmi ) had considerable clonal diversity at population! Fall where their offspring spend the winter in bark crevices made identifications from resolution! I should elm sack gall aphid it or not to ensure that identifications are correct, can. Within galls on English elm ( Ulmus procera ) quite widely in southern Britain, although never commonly... 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